• Introduction to the unique vertical pupils of cats.
  • Brief mention of the evolutionary and functional reasons behind this feature.

The Evolutionary Background of Vertical Pupils

  • The ancestral lineage of cats and their tree-dwelling habits.
  • How vertical pupils provided survival advantages in hunting and evading predators.

The Functional Benefits of Vertical Pupils

  • The mechanics of the cat’s eye and how it aids in depth perception.
  • The role of vertical pupils in stereopsis and blur, two methods cats use to gauge depth.

Pupils and Prey: The Horizontal Counterpart

  • Introduction to horizontal pupils found in prey animals like goats and sheep.
  • How horizontal pupils offer a panoramic view and aid in detecting predators.

The Science Behind Pupil Shapes

  • How different pupil shapes evolved multiple times based on the animal’s niche.
  • The correlation between pupil shape and the animal’s daily activities and habits.

Round Pupils: Where Do Humans Stand?

  • Brief overview of animals with round pupils, including humans.
  • The evolutionary and functional reasons behind round pupils.


  • Why do some animals have horizontal pupils while others have vertical ones?
    • Brief explanation of the evolutionary reasons behind these differences.
  • Do all cats have vertical pupils?
    • Explanation that while most domestic cats have vertical pupils, some big cats like lions and tigers have round pupils.
  • How do cats’ pupils react to different light conditions?
    • Overview of how cats’ pupils dilate and contract based on light exposure.


  • Recap of the main points discussed in the article.
  • The significance of understanding the evolutionary and functional reasons behind the unique pupil shapes in different animals.

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